Background: Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder with a high risk of celiac disease (CD).
Aim: This study aimed to determine the celiac autoantibody status and the clinical characteristics among children with type 1 diabetes and autoantibody positivity for celiac disease compared to those without serological evidence of celiac disease.
Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 240 children with type 1 diabetes underwent serological screening CD. Blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), hemoglobin, calcium, phosphorous, vitamin D, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were evaluated. The participants were screened for human anti-endomysial antibody and human anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody.
Results: Of the 240 children with type 1 diabetes, 66 children were antibody positive for either anti-endomysial or anti-tissue transglutaminase or both autoantibodies for CD. There were 36 (54.5%) female and 30 (45.5%) male children with mean age 15.5±2.1 years. The mean duration of diabetes was 6.8±3.8 years. Only 35 (14.6%) children were found to have serological evidence of CD.
Conclusion: CD is associated with type 1 diabetes. Serological screening for CD autoantibody should be performed routinely in children with type 1 diabetes. There is discrepancy in screening CD with antibodies, so a prospective follow up of this cohort is needed for endoscopic evaluation and histopathological examination of intestinal biopsy to confirm CD in this population. Relevance for patients: Anti-endomysial and anti-tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies should be included for screening CD among children with type 1 diabetes. Patients should undergo an endoscopy to confirm a diagnosis of CD.
1 University Diabetes Center, King Abdulaziz University Hospital,King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 Strategic Center for Diabetes Research, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
3 Family Medicine, Department of non-communicable diseases, Ministry of Health, Sultanate of Oman
4 Endocrinology and Diabetes Unit, Department of Medicine & King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
University Diabetes Center, King Abdulaziz University Hospital,King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Strategic Center for Diabetes Research, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Department of Pharmaceutics, Utrecht University, the Netherlands
Department of Pharmaceutics, Jiaxing University Medical College, Zhejiang, China