Background and aim: Male factor infertility results from dysfunction at various levels of spermatogenesis, sex hormone abnormalities, and occupation or workplace exposure to toxins are involved. This study was designed to determine the frequency of occupational distribution of men who were evaluated for infertility, the patterns of hormonal abnormalities, and to associate hormonal abnormalities with occupational categories in some centers in Osun State, Nigeria.
Methods: Semen and 5mL of whole blood were collected from the infertile men (n=319) who were referred to the laboratories for fertility investigation after physical and medical examination. Semen analysis was done microscopically according to the World Health Organization manual while serum gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and prolactin were determined by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay technique using reagents supplied by Biorex Diagnostics Limited, Antrim, United Kingdom. The subjects were grouped based on semen characteristics.
Results: More than half 164(51.4%) of the subjects were within the age group of 31-40years, followed by 70 (21.9%) in the age group 21 – 30 years, while 67(21.0%) was in the age group 41-50years. Some 133/319 (41.7%) of the subjects had normal sex hormone levels while 186/319(58.3%) had abnormal hormone levels. The patterns of hormonal abnormalities observed were 96/186(51.6%) normogonadotrophin-hypogonadism, 49/186(26.3%) normogonadotrophin-hypergonadism, 14/186 (7.5%) elevated FSH levels, 15/186(8.1%) elevated LH levels, 07/186(3.8%) hypergonadotropic-hypergonadism, and 05/186(2.7%) hyperprolactinaemia. Artisans (OR 1.2252 95%CI 0.367-2.472), workers in chemical related industries (OR 1.667, 95%CI 0.594- 4.676) and businessmen (OR 1.200, 95%CI 0.110-3.49) are more likely to be predisposed to hormonal abnormalities. Conclusion: The patterns of hormone abnormalities as well as their relative proportions are slightly different from those reported previously. Some occupations may predispose workers to hormonal disorder than the others.
Relevance for Patients: This is a cross sectional study of males investigated for infertility; the contribution and patterns of hormonal abnormalities were evaluated. The possible association between workplace and infertility that may assist in the management of patients with male infertility was evaluated.
1. Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School Of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.
2. Department of Chemical Pathology, Ladoke Akintola University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria.
3. Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Ladoke Akintola University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria.
4. Department of Medical Laboratory Services(Microbiology & parasitology), state Specialist Hospital, Hospital Management Board, Asubiaro, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria.
5. Department of Medical Laboratory Services, University Health Centre, Federal University of Technology Akure, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.
Mathias Abiodun Emokpae,
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.
Department of Pharmaceutics, Utrecht University, the Netherlands
Department of Pharmaceutics, Jiaxing University Medical College, Zhejiang, China