Background and Aim: Though SARS-CoV-2 primarily affects the respiratory system, involvement of cardiovascular system is not uncommon and a range of cardiac manifestations among COVID-19 patients were reported in the literature. Furthermore, it is evident from scientific literature that the incidence of deaths and hospitalizations has been increasingly more among COVID-19 subjects with pre-existing CVD. Various pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed to explain the cardiovascular involvement in COVID-19. Another emerging significant concern is the varying presentations of COVID-19 and side effects due to the medication used in the management of COVID-19 patients. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of the existing literature on the possible association between CVD and COVID-19 with emphasis on the pathophysiological mechanisms, cardiac manifestations, impact of medications used for COVID-19 on cardiovascular health. Based on the available literature, we conclude that though CVD could not be reckoned as an independent risk factor for COVID-19 infection, it is evident that pre-existing CVD has an influence on the severity of COVID-19 infection and associated mortality.
Relevance for patients: Literature suggests that people with pre-existing cardiovascular disease are at increased risk for COVID-19 and associated severity. Consequently, it becomes important to thoroughly gain insights into the possible pathophysiological mechanisms, cardiac manifestations in COVID-19, and the impact of COVID-19 treatment on the cardiovascular system.
1. Physician , North Central Bronx Hospital, 3424 Kossuth Ave, Bronx , Newyork
2. Resident Physician , James J Peter VA Medical center, 130W Kingsbridge road, Bronx 10468, Newyork
3. Associate General Dentist, C/O Familia Dental LLC, 3200 Andrews Hwy, Ste 400, Midland Texas
4. Associate Professor ,Department of Periodontology, Sibar Institute of Dental Sciences, Guntur , Andhra Pradesh, India.
Department of Periodontology, Sibar Institute of Dental Sciences, Takkellapadu, Guntur , Andhra Pradesh, PIN CODE- 522509, India.
Department of Pharmaceutics, Utrecht University, the Netherlands
Department of Pharmaceutics, Jiaxing University Medical College, Zhejiang, China